Brief Study About
following there are the most important Kurdish Families and clans in
Afrin which had an authority and a big role in the life of the area.
They have settled
down the area for (250)yearThey came from (Kenge)village in the
north of Diar Baker and they are also from (Mallan)clan and from
Feudal family.(Noury Kenge)appeared in the delivery of (ALTARIQ
ALQAWIM)news paper in Aleppo in 1930.
Is a wealthy family
settled in Basouta village.
Ommo Family(Al Battal):
They are from the
cousins of AL Kenge,their main place is in (Frerieh)village.
is from the itinerant Kurds between(Klles , Qunia and Aleppo),and
they still separated between the villages of Jouma level and Leloon
mountain(Hanano)family is the most important one which is the family
of the patriotic leader (Ibrahim Hanano).
Haj Omar family(AL
Their ancestors have
came from the regions of Kunia for
450 years.The Ottoman
government recommended Haj Omar with the feudatory of Alkurd
mountain ,but their authority vanished with the death of Khalil Aga
at the beginning of twentieth century so their leadership went
to(AL Sheikh Ismail Zada)the brother-in-law of Khalil Aga(from his
sister)and they had an opponent attitude toward French colonization
the thing that caused their vagrancy, chasing and arresting some of
It is from the oldest
big clans in the mountain and the most maintain of their personal
characteristics .their settling was in about(26)villages separated
around Hawar mountain ,and others live in about(10)villages out of
Hawar mountain. its men are the first who formed armed troops
against French, as well as their supporting of the agreement of
(Ataturk)applications specially in wearing the beret.
The most important
families of this clan are (Ihoka, Diko, Al Eimar and Al Routo).
Its old origin is the
riverbed of (Qara So)one of Euphrates assistants . This clan has
branches in Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria. Their regions flourishing
by fruitful trees, olive and vine besides (Rashwan and Al Haj
Omar)are their neighbors .
The members of this
clan settling down in 37 inhabited villages because of their lands
which prolong from Sharran and the areas around it to far
distances. About their relationship with Ottomans it was a bad one,
It was good with
(Rashwan )clan because of affinity relations .Concerning their
leadership it continued from the beginning of the nineteenth century
and it is still limited for (Jlousi)family. The of Bazar Afrin is
formed by Jamil Aga, the mayor of Afrin, in the middle of thirties
of twentieth century. This clan has had sublime humanitarian
attitudes Armenian emigrants from Turkey so most of them became
Kurdish by the passage of the time. Also calmness covered their
relationships with French.
assassination of (Ali Bek), the son of Janpulat one of the princes
of the Mandian Kurdish family whose rule on Klles had continued
since Ayobian day, the Ottoman authority named (Muhammad Shah
Robary)as a governor of Klles . Although (Mohammad Shah) was
dismissed from the governorship of Klles, the authority of his
children and followers spread to Jouma, Robarian area nowadays, and
Klles taking from Basouta castle a center for them until they
settled in the place they live in now (Leloon Mountain) ,on the
mountain in (Jlbol, Baselhaia, Ibbeen, Zreqat , Khrebke, Kushtar,
Aqiba and Der Mushmush ) while in Jouma they live in (Kafar Batra,
Joumkeh and Karsane). The men of this clan joined Alqetle Alwatanieh
troops against French colonization so they maintained their great
social position until now.
One of the biggest
clans in the area, and Rajo is considered as absolute Shekhanian
area in addition to separation of some of its families in other
They have 8 villages
adjacent to Amka clan from the east starting from( Jela) in the
North to( Shekh Bella) in the south , and 8 villages neighboring
(khastian) clan starting from (Barband and Badenly) in the east to
(Alanka) in the west. The whole number of their villages is 75 on
the boundaries with Turkey and 4 of its villages are still inside
Turkey which are (Anjara, kumeteh,Talbeer and Kharab Jamous).Their
areas are mountainous and sylvan
and their sheikhs
were the owner of honors like the sheikhs of (Sheikh and Bablit)
This clan was
governed by Kurd Aga for many centuries ,and they had resistances
against French colonization because of their supporting to
The most important
families of this clan are:
One of the oldest
families of Shekhan clan .Their settlement is in (Atman )village.
(Dawood)one of their
leaders carried the state of(By Bek) during Ottoman's role.
-(Rash Aga) Family:
Their center was
in(Komiteh) inside the Turkish borders nowadays and they had a
religious authority. (Hussein Awny) was the most important man of
this family in the twentieth century who was elected as a
representative in Syrian parliament in 1936 by the helping of
-(Sino and Ali
Their settlement is
in the villages of Mydaniat.
In (Masaka and Rajo)
and this person who lives in Aleppo is still the leader of the rest
of Meridians in Syria and Turkey.
-(Belli Rash) Family:
It is from the
ancient of Shekhan. They live in( Gri and Kumrashe).
Hanif Aga lived in
(HajKhalil) in the east of Rajo ,and he was the leader of Shekhan
for a while.
-(Al Jafar) Family:
It is a
new family which appeared in (Mamal Ushagy )
village at the end of nineteenth century. At the twenties of the
twentieth century their name connected with bloody contentions with
their cousins (Ibesh, Smo, and Ali Beg).
- (Kor Ahmad) Family:
They are known by
Mustuke family in their residency in (Badenly)village. They
appeared at the beginning of twentieth century, and (Ezzat Khalil)
was elected as a member of Syrian parliament in 1954.
It was a family of
noble descent and had a big power in the nineteenth century.
It is a branch of
Rashwan clan, its nomination came from the fame of their area with
high Willow trees (Byan) near the rills and springs in and its
timberland mountains and around their villages which are about 95.
16 villages from them
are in the Turkish side and these villages run on the extent
between(Maidan Akbas) in the west and (Klles and Izaz) in the east.
Sheikh Ismail Zada
Family have been the leader of this clan since the middle of the
nineteenth century and Zada surname was added by (Sleman Aga Sido
Diko) as a kind of honoring. In 1866 (Sheikh Ismail) married the
sister of(Khalil Aga Haj Omar) the person of strong authority so
Sheikh Ismail became famous after the death of Khalil Aga . Sheikh
Ismail is considered as (Byanian, Rashwanian, and clever religious
old man)with great status. He got the heritage of Al Haj Omar until
he became the governor of (Byan) clan, and claiming for the Ottoman
The authority of (Al
Ismail) increased by their men's marriage to the Kurdish families in
the mountain like (Al Jlousi),the Agas of Shekak clan, and (Al Sido
Meme)the Agas of Jouma. They also wedded their daughters to (Sido
Diko) family who are from the Agas of Amkan.
Meridians' old men
were close to this family at the thirties of the previous century
until Meridians became strong among poor and then the relationship
chanced to be a strong enmity which caused bloody impacts where in
one of these impacts (Jafar Aga Sheikh Ismail Zada) was assassinated
by the Meridians in 1939 . this family have a big appearance in
Syrian Parliament specially that they carry an important religious
They are itinerant
Kurds, the people of black tents made of goats' hair. they were
moving with their cattle among Ottoman territories until the forties
of the twentieth century. Their origins belong to (Gojari
Mersham),and they run along the oval bracket from(Klles, Islahia and
Qarqakhan) to Amanous mountain.
Their life is simple
and their belief was Alawi until they became Sunna by the passage of
the time. As a result of their nomadic life, men of authority
appeared and formed (Jetah) , strong mafias, against their enemies
until the circumstances settled them down in inhabited villages
especially after the division of borders between Syria and Turkey.
23 villages in Syria became their own from (Dir Swan to Sheikh
Alhadid, Alhammam, and Kurzehel).
A tribe from (Mallan)
great clan of the government which is in (Omar Sfouna) family. Their
population is about (4000) person in the villages (Marateh, Darguer,
and Gunde Mazen)and also in (Jalameh and Torendeh).
(Omar Sfouna) Family:
They had strong
authority during one century, they lived in Jouma level and Hestia
mountain since eighteenth century. They extended their leverage on
(khastian) mountain and Basouta and on the most of Jouma level,
where they fought (Al-Kenge) in the personality of their leader
(Battal althani). The origin of this family came from Qalandar
Afandi who was living in Gunde Mazen village . this title ,Afandi,
indicates his ability of reading and writing while the cause behind
naming them Omar Sfouna related to the little child(Omar) with his
mother (Sfouna) the widow of strength and wise authority, after her
husband was assassinated by (Hasan Aga)family ,so the leadership
moved to that child in the favor of his mother.
This family stood
against the French delegation and they participated in oppositions
with the commands of their leader (Ibrahim Aga). They supported
Meridian movement which opposing against French until French
them and arrested their fighters.
In the middle of
eighteenth century this person appeared with the Ottoman degree (By
Beg) and he settled in (Ghazi Tabba) 9K.M in the west of Afrin now,
and his appearance was at the time of (Battal Aga) government in
Basouta castle ,who fought against each other for a while and then
Hasan Afandi revolted against Ottomans in 1793 and he was able to
spread his domination on the most of the area between (Tal Hamo,
Sheikh Abdurrahman, Kafardaleh, and Tllef) among (Al- Ommo, Al-
Sfouna and Battal Aga) Hasan Afandi had an authority in whole
money, in arresting and hanging people, until he was hanged by the
Ottoman governor in (Kafar Janna) . Many sayings repeated in the
origins of this family and about its being from (Ashti) one of
Rashwan Clan's tribes.
The origin of this
family goes to (Meme) and her son (Sido) and their dialect is (Zaza)
.Their settlement was in (Ghazi Tabba) and then moved to (Cholaqa) .
Members of this family worked in cutting trees for charcoal and then
planting the fallow lands with olive and vine in the time forest
hadn't any importance until it became feudal family by the passage
of time and took the whole villages.
(Khalil Aga) ,the
grandson of Sido Meme, the first person who was named with the
ottoman surname (Aga) at the end of nineteenth century and in 1947
he was elected as a member of Syrian parliament. The wealth of his
son (Muhammad Khalil Aga) widened to reach (Meskeh Foqani and
Tehtani, berjekeh, Qileh, Sendianki, Jakalli Joum and Jolaqan)
until these lands were peddled on the farmers by the application of
agricultural reformation law.
This family have
blood and affinity relationships with Sheikh Ismail Zada family.
(Kafar Safra) Agas:
This family left
their Yazidian religion century ago. In the middle of nineteenth
century their men supported (Hawa Khanem), from Al Ommo, against
(Khalil Aga Haj Omar).So they were awarded by Hawa with wide lands
between (Jenderes and Kafar Safra) as a gift for their boldness and
supporting, then their state became better and at the beginning of
twentieth century they were named (Agas) and they had authority in
Kafar Safra and Muhammadia also many parliamental personalities
appeared like Muhammad Murad and other people of high degrees.
They were Yazidian in
ancient times but most of them became Muslims. Their original center
is in (Urfa) and they have the villages (Tal Hasel and Tal Aran) in
the north of Aleppo . In the eighteen century they got strength in
(Jouma level and Leloon mountain) and supported (Battal Aga
Althani), the owner of Basouta castle,. Their inhabitants are living
now in more than 12 villages of the area.
It is a branch of
Mallan clan, they live in more than 11 villages like (Jweqe,
Khalner, Kafardaleh, Jaqalli, Qarmitleq, Jolaqan and Einelhajar)
Branches of various
They are in two
villages (Arsh Qibar and Faqiran).
It is from Mallan
clan in Faqiran, Torendeh, Borj Suleiman, and Gunde Mazen). Their
origin came from Urfa and Mardin.
Bouri in the villages
of (Kurzehel, Borj Abdalo, Barad, and Borj Hedar). Their origin are
from Diar Baker and Mardin.
They have 50 families
Their account is
about 2000 person scattered in Aghjjaleh, Jenderes,Snnara, Frerieh,
Abu Kaeb, and Kusa).
Sarinja, Brimja, and Doraqli) villages.
In Gholian, Jaqalli
Tahtani, and Termisha) villages.
In about 300
families,120 families of them live in Afrin and they have special
religious way and they insert saber inside their bodies without
Translated by Avindar Haji Othman